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The Appendicular Skeleton


The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs

The Appendicular Skeleton

      Upper and lower limbs

      Pectoral and pelvic girdle


Pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle)

      Articulates the upper limbs with the trunk

      Consists of clavicle and scapula


Clavicle and scapula

      Position the shoulder joint

      Help move the upper limb

      Provide a base for muscle attachment


Scapula markings are attachment sites for tendons/ligaments of shoulder joint


The upper limbs

      Scapula articulates with the humerus at the glenohumoral joint

      Greater and lesser tubercles are muscle attachment sites




Carpal bones and hand

      Carpus forms wrist

      Two rows of short bones

      Distal row articulates with metacarpals

      Four fingers have three phalanges

    Pollex (thumb) has two





The pelvic girdle and lower limbs

      More massive than the pectoral girdle

      Consists of two os coxae

    Fusion of ilium, ischium and pubis



      Largest hip bone

      Within acetabulum, fused to the ischium (posteriorly) and the pubis (anteriorly)

      Pubic symphysis limits left to right



      Composed of the hipbones, sacrum and coccyx

      Subdivided into the false (greater) and true (lesser) pelvis


The lower limbs

      Femur is the longest bone in the body

    Articulates with the tibia at the knee

      Patella is a large sesamoid bone

      Fibula parallels tibia laterally



      Has seven tarsal bones

      Pattern of metatarsal bones and phalanges parallels that of the hand

    All toes have three phalanges except the hallux (two phalanges)


Ankle and arches

      When standing, most of the weight of the body is transferred from the talus to the calcaneous

    Rest is passed on to metatarsals

      Weight transfer occurs along longitudinal arch

    Transverse arch

Individual Variation in the Skeletal System

Important Variation in the Skeletal System

      Medical history



      Body size

      Muscle mass



Age related changes in skeletal system

      Begin about age one

      Continue throughout life