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The Appendicular Skeleton

 


The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs

The Appendicular Skeleton

      Upper and lower limbs

      Pectoral and pelvic girdle

 

Pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle)

      Articulates the upper limbs with the trunk

      Consists of clavicle and scapula

 

Clavicle and scapula

      Position the shoulder joint

      Help move the upper limb

      Provide a base for muscle attachment

 

Scapula markings are attachment sites for tendons/ligaments of shoulder joint

 

The upper limbs

      Scapula articulates with the humerus at the glenohumoral joint

      Greater and lesser tubercles are muscle attachment sites

 

Humerus

 

Carpal bones and hand

      Carpus forms wrist

      Two rows of short bones

      Distal row articulates with metacarpals

      Four fingers have three phalanges

    Pollex (thumb) has two

 

 

 

 

The pelvic girdle and lower limbs

      More massive than the pectoral girdle

      Consists of two os coxae

    Fusion of ilium, ischium and pubis

 

Ilium

      Largest hip bone

      Within acetabulum, fused to the ischium (posteriorly) and the pubis (anteriorly)

      Pubic symphysis limits left to right

 

Pelvis

      Composed of the hipbones, sacrum and coccyx

      Subdivided into the false (greater) and true (lesser) pelvis

 

The lower limbs

      Femur is the longest bone in the body

    Articulates with the tibia at the knee

      Patella is a large sesamoid bone

      Fibula parallels tibia laterally

 

Tarsus

      Has seven tarsal bones

      Pattern of metatarsal bones and phalanges parallels that of the hand

    All toes have three phalanges except the hallux (two phalanges)

 

Ankle and arches

      When standing, most of the weight of the body is transferred from the talus to the calcaneous

    Rest is passed on to metatarsals

      Weight transfer occurs along longitudinal arch

    Transverse arch


Individual Variation in the Skeletal System

Important Variation in the Skeletal System

      Medical history

      Weight

      Gender

      Body size

      Muscle mass

      Age

 

Age related changes in skeletal system

      Begin about age one

      Continue throughout life