Anatomy & Physiology II - Course Syllabus

Blackwood, NJ

- Anatomy & Physiology II -

Instructor: Robert L. Moskowitz, Ed. D.

Camden County College
Community College of Philadelphia



       Sely, R., Stephens, T., and Tate, P.  2000. 
  Anatomy & Physiology  (5th edition) McGraw-Hill .
  On line resources:

  Laboratory Text: Benson, H. et al. , 1999.  Complete Version
  - Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Textbook (7th edition) McGraw Hill.

  Recommended:     Van Der Graff, K. & Crawley, J. A Photographic 
  Atlas for the Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory (4th edition)1999.

Course Description/Goals:
Laboratories are designed
to suplement lecture material, and to include the use of a variety of materials: histology slides,
models, and preserved specimens. Some dissection is required.

Lecture Outline:
The following outline follows the recommendations of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society.
The information in this outline is designed to focus the studentís attention on the critical
content areas to be considered either through lecture, laboratory or the studentís related
textual analysis .

I. Cardiovascular System: The Blood

	A. Functions

		1. transportation

			a) respiratory gases

			b) nutrients and wastes

			c) heat and hormones

		2. regulation

			a) pH and temperature	

			b) electrolyte and water balance

		3. protection

			a) blood loss

			b) disease

	B. Components of whole blood

		1. plasma

			a) plasma proteins

				1) albumins

				2) globulins

				3) fibrinogens

			b) water and electrolytes

			c) nutrients and wastes

			d) regulatory substances

		2. formed elements: erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes

	C. Formation of blood cells: Hemopoiesis

		1. hemocytoblasts: pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells

		2. proerythroblasts: erythrocytes

		3. myeloblasts: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

		4. monoblasts: monocytes

		5. lymphoblasts: lymphocytes

		6. megakaryoblasts: thrombocytes

	D. Erythrocytes

		1. erythrocyte morphology

		2. hemoglobin: carrying capacity and recycling

		3. production and life span: erythropoietin

		4. measurements: total RBC count and hematocrit

		5. blood typing: ABO system and Rh factor

	E. Leukocytes

		1. leukocyte morphology and functions

			a) granulocytes

				1) neutrophils

				2) eosinophils

				3) basophils

			b) agranulocytes

				1) monocytes

				2) lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)

		2. WBC life span: cytokines

		3. measurements

			a) total leukocyte count

			b) differential WBC count

	F. Thrombocytes

		1. platelet formation

		2. hemostasis: blood coagulation

			a) vascular spasm

			b) platelet plug formation

			c) coagulation: intrinsic and extrinsic factors

			d) fibrinolysis

		3. measurements: total platelet count

II.  Cardiovascular System: The Heart

	A. Overview of the cardiovascular system: circulatory routes

		1. pulmonary circuit

		2. systemic circuit

	B.  Anatomy of the heart

		1. embryological development	

		2. position in body: pericardial cavity

		3. external anatomy

			a) pericardial sac: parietal and visceral pericardium

			b) auricles

		4. internal anatomy

			a) chambers: atria and ventricles

			b) heart wall

				1) epicardium

				2) myocardium

				3) endocardium

			c) atrioventricular (A-V) valves

			d) aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves

			e) attached vessels: aorta and pulmonary trunk

		5. coronary circulation

		6. nervous control

			a) medullary cardiac control centers

			b) autonomic innervation

		7. cardiac muscle fibers

		8. excitatory and conducting system

			a) sinoatrial (S-A) node

			b) atrioventricular (A-V) node

			c) atrioventricular (A-V) bundle

			d) bundle branches-Purkinje fibers

	C.  Heart physiology

		1. cardiac cycle

			a) systole and diastole

			b) correlation of events in chambers and valves

		2.  heart sounds

		3.  electrocardiograph (ECG): significance of  waves

		4.  cardiac output (CO)

			a) definition and calculation

			b) control of heart rate

				1) physiological factors

				2) autonomic reflexes

			c) control of stroke volume

				1) control of EDV

					(a) filling time

					(b) venous return

				2) control of ESV

					(a) arterial pressure

					(b) strength of contraction

					(c) Frank-Starling's law of the heart

III. Cardiovascular System: The Blood Vessels

	A. Functional anatomy

		1. structure, location, and examples of blood vessels

		2. arteries

			a) large/elastic

			b) medium/muscular

			c) small-arterioles

		3. capillaries

			a) continuous

			b) fenestrated

			c) sinusoids

		4. veins

			a) large

			b) medium

			c) venules

	B. Physiology of circulation

		1. velocity and cross-sectional area

		2. relationship between blood pressure, flow, and resistance

			a) blood flow (CO): blood volume and heart rate

			b) resistance: viscosity, vessel length and diameter

		3.  arterial circulation

			a) pressures in arterial system

			b) control of resistance: local, neural and hormonal

			c) regulation of arterial blood pressure

				1) short term (neural) regulation

					(a) baroreceptor reflex	

					(b) chemoreceptor reflex

					(c) ANS control

				2) long term (endocrine) regulation

					(a) renin-angiotensin

					(b) aldosterone

		4. capillary circulation

			a) hydrostatic and osmotic pressures

			b) transport: filtration and absorption

			c) regulation: CNS and autoregulation

		5. venous circulation/return

			a) pressures in venous system

			b) factors in venous return

				1) valves

				2) pumps

	C. Anatomy of the vascular system

		1. pulmonary and systemic circulation

		2. areas of special circulation

			a) hepatic portal system

			b) fetal circulation

IV. The Lymphatic System, Body Defense, and Immunity

	A. Components of the lymphatic system

		1. lymph

			a) origin

			b) formation

			c) composition	

		2. lymphatic vessels

			a) lymphatic capillaries

			b) lymphatic vessels/lymphatics

			c) lymphatic (terminal) ducts

				1) right lymphatic duct

				2) left (thoracic) lymphatic duct

		3. lymphoid structures

			a) lymph nodules and tonsils

			b) lymph nodes

			c) spleen

			d) thymus

	B. Functions of the lymphatic system

		1. circulation

		2. body defense and immunity

		3. relation to blood vascular system

	C. Nonspecific body defenses

		1. physical barriers

		2. chemical factors

		3. mechanical barriers

	D. Specific defenses: Immunity

		1. characteristics of immune response

		2. types of acquired immunity

		3. cellular/cell-mediated immunity

			a) T-lymphocytes: origin, differentiation, types

			b) functional relation to B-lymphocytes

			c) types of cell-mediated immunity

		4. antibody-mediated/humoral immunity

			a) B-lymphocytes: origin, differentiation, types

			b) antigen structure

			c) antibodies: classification

		5. hormones and other chemicals of the immune system

		6. interrelationships between macrophages and lymphocytes

	E. Autoimmune responses (optional)

V. The Respiratory System

	A.  Functional anatomy

		1.  upper (conducting) organs

			a) nose, nasal cavity, and vestibule

			b) pharynx

				1) nasopharynx

				2) oropharynx

				3) laryngopharynx

			c) larynx, laryngeal cartilages and glottis

			d) trachea

			e) bronchial passages: dead air spaces	

				1) primary bronchi

				2) secondary bronchi

				3) tertiary bronchi

				4) terminal bronchioles

		2. lower (respiratory) organs

			a) respiratory bronchioles

			b) alveolar ducts

			c) alveoli

		3. lungs

			a) pleural sac: parietal and visceral pleura

			b) lobes: bronchopulmonary segments

			c) blood supply

			d) alveolar structure and blood supply

			e) respiratory membrane

				1) alveolar (type I) cells

				2) capillary epithelial cells

			f) alveolar type II cell and surfactant production

	B. Physiology of the respiratory tract

		1.  mechanics pulmonary ventilation (breathing)

			a) pressure-volume relationship

			b) respiratory cycle: inspiration and expiration

				1) intrapulmonic volume and pressure

				2) intrathoracic volume and pressure

			c) resistance to air flow

			d) alveolar surface tension

		2. pulmonary function testing

			a) lung volumes and capacities

				1) tidal volume

				2) inspiratory reserve volume

				3) expiratory reserve volumes

				4) residual volume

				5) total lung capacity

				6) vital capacity

				7) functional residual capacity

			b) respiratory minute volume

			c) alveolar ventilation

		3. composition and properties of gases

			a) composition of atmospheric, inspired, and expired air

			b) properties of gases: gas laws

				1) partial pressures (Dalton's law)

				2) volume-temperature (Charles' law)

				3) volume-pressure (Boyle's law)

				4) solubility-partial  pressure (Henry's law)

				5) diffusion through membranes (Fick's law)

			c) partial pressures (PO2 and PCO2)

		4. exchange of respiratory gases

			a) external respiration: alveoli and blood

			b) internal respiration: blood and cells

	C. Gas transport

		1. oxygen transport

			a) plasma and hemoglobin transport

			b) hemoglobin saturation

			c) oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve

			d) effects of PO2, PCO2, pH,  temperature, DPG

		2. carbon dioxide transport

			a) plasma, hemoglobin, and bicarbonate transport

			b) role in maintenance of acid-base balance

	D. Control of respiration

		1. nervous control

			a) medulla

				1) inspiratory control center

				2) expiratory control center

			b) pons	

				1) apneustic center

				2) pneumotaxic center

			c) mechanoreceptor reflexes

			d) baroreceptor reflexes

		2. chemical control: reflex sensitivities to PO2, PCO2, pH

VI. The Digestive System

	A. Survey of functions	

		1. ingestion

		2. mechanical digestion and movement

		3. chemical/enzymatic digestion

		4. absorption

		5. egestion (defecation)

	B. Histological plan of digestive tract

		1. mucosa

		2. submucosa

		3. muscularis externa

		4. adventitia/serosa

	C. Digestive tract organs

		1. oral cavity: mouth

			a) tongue

			b) teeth

			c) salivary glands

		2. pharynx

		3. esophagus and the swallowing reflex

		4. stomach

			a) mucosa

				1) acid and pepsin secretion

				2) gastrin secretion

				3) secretion of intrinsic factor

			b) muscularis external layers

			c) phases in gastric secretions

		5. small intestine: duodenum, jejunum, ileum

			a) mucosa

				1) hormone secretion: CCK, GIP, secretin

				2) enzyme secretion

			b) specialized structures: microvilli, villi, plica

			c) intestinal movements

		6. large intestine: colon, rectum, appendix

			a) mucosa: secretions of mucous

			b) intestinal movements

	D. Glandular accessory organs

		1. salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual

		2. liver

			a) biliary system: duct system and gallbladder	

			b) hepatic portal circulation

			c) digestive functions

				1) bile secretion

				2) nutrient metabolism	

			d) non-digestive functions

		3. pancreas

			a) exocrine component

				1) secretions

				2) digestive functions

			b) endocrine component

				1) secretions

				2) digestive functions

	E.  Digestive physiology

		1. carbohydrate digestion and absorption

			a. digestion of polysaccharide and disaccharides

			b. absorption of monosaccharides

		2. lipid digestion and absorption

			a. enzymatic digestion of fats

			b. absorption of fatty acids and monoglycerides

		3. protein digestion and absorption

			a. enzymatic digestion of proteins and polypeptides

			b. absorption of amino acids

		4. absorption of water, electrolytes and vitamins

VII. Metabolism

	A. Concepts of metabolism and cellular physiology

		1. anaerobic and aerobic metabolism

		2. sources of energy and generation of ATP

	B. Carbohydrate metabolism

		1. glucose catabolism

			a) glycolysis

			b) aerobic/cellular respiration

				1) tricarboxylic acid (TCA/Krebs) cycle

				2) electron transport system (ETS)

		2. glycogenesis

		3) gluconeogenesis

	C. Fat metabolism

		1. fat catabolism: beta-oxidation of fatty acids

		2. fatty acid synthesis

	D. Protein metabolism

		1. amino acid catabolism

			a. transamination

			b. deamination

		2. amino acid synthesis

	E. Metabolic interactions

		1. absorptive state

			a. energy sources and reactions

			b. hormonal regulation

		2. postabsorptive state	

			a. energy sources and reactions

			b. hormonal regulation

	F. Adjustments to metabolic stresses: starvation and disease

VIII. The Urinary System

	A. Excretory functions

		1. excretory organs

			a) sweat glands

			b) lungs

			c) kidneys

		2. role in homeostasis of blood volume and pressure

	B.  Urinary organs

		1. kidneys

			a) structures of the renal cortex and medulla

			b) nephron

				1) renal corpuscle

				2) tubular segments

				3) juxtaglomerular apparatus

			c) blood supply to nephron

				1) afferent arteriole

				2) glomerulus

				3) efferent arteriole

				4) peritubular capillaries

				5) vasa recta

			d) blood supply: from renal artery to renal vein

		2. duct and storage systems

			a) ureters

			b) urinary bladder

			c) urethra

	C. Physiology of urine formation

		1. glomerular filtration	

			a) factors in effective filtration pressure

				1) glomerular hydrostatic pressure

				2) blood osmotic pressure

			b) glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

			c) composition of filtrate

		2. reabsorption: comparison of tubular fluid to filtrate

			a) water and salt (sodium ion) reabsorption

			b) nutrient (glucose and amino acids) reabsorption

			c) urea reabsorption

		3. tubular secretion: hydrogen, potassium, and sodium ions

		4. countercurrent multiplier mechanism

			a) reabsorption in ascending and descending limbs

			b) medullary interstitial fluid osmotic gradient

			c) osmotic gradient in vasa recta

		5. production of hypertonic urine: water reabsorption

			a) ADH

			b) aldosterone

	D. Regulation of kidney urinary function

		1. autoregulation of GFR

		2. hormonal regulation of GFR: renin-angiotensin system

		3. nervous regulation of GFR: autonomic regulation

	E. Micturition reflex

IX. Water-electrolyte and Acid-base Homeostasis

	A. Body fluid compartments and fluid compositions

		1. extracellular fluids (ECF)

			a) interstitial fluid

			b) plasma and lymph

		2. intracellular fluid (ICF)

	B. Fluid/water and electrolyte balance

		1. hormonal regulation

			a) ADH

			b) aldosterone

			c) atrial natriuretic hormone

		2. fluid balance

		3. electrolyte balance: sodium and potassium ions

	C. Acid-base balance

		1. body acids

			a) volatile acid (CO2)

			b) fixed acids

			c) organic acids

		2. buffer systems

			a) bicarbonate buffer system

			b) phosphate buffer system

			c) protein buffer system

		3.  maintenance of acid-base balance

			a) respiratory system regulation

			b) renal system regulation

X. The Reproductive Systems

	A. Embryonic development

		1. development of the urogenital systems

		2. development of male system

		3. development of female system

	B. Male reproductive system

		1. scrotum and descent of the testes

		2. testes

			a) seminiferous tubules

				1) spermatogenesis

				2) spermatozoa structure

			b) interstitial cells (Leydig cells)

			c) sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells)

			d) ducts: tubuli recti, rete testis, efferent ductules

		3. ducts

			a) epididymis

			b) ductus deferens

			c) urethra: prostatic, membranous, and penile

		4. accessory glands

			a) seminal vesicles

			b) prostate gland

			c) bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland

		5. penis

		6. hormonal regulation

			a) FSH	

			b) LH (ICSH)

			c) androgens

	C. Female reproductive system

		1. ovaries

			a) follicle structure

				1) granulosa cells

				2) theca cells

			b) oogenesis

		2. ducts

			a) uterine ducts (Fallopian tubes)

			b) uterus

				1) perimetrium	

				2) myometrium

				3) endometrium

			c) vagina

		3. external genitalia

		4. accessory glands: mammary glands

		5. hormonal regulation

			a) FSH	

			b) LH

			c) estrogens

			d) progestins (progesterone

	D. Female reproductive cycle

		1. ovarian cycle

		2. uterine (menstrual) cycle

		3. fertilization and pregnancy

		4. lactation

		5. menopause

XI. Embryonic Development

	A. Early development

		1. completion of meiosis

		2. formation of zygote	

		3. formation of morula

		4. formation of blastocyst: trophoblast and inner cell mass

	B. Implantation

	C. Primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

	D. Extraembryonic membranes: yolk sac, amnion, chorion, allantois

	E. Placentation and placental circulation

	F. Embryogenesis and fetal development: body systems

Laboratory Schedule Week Topic LAB EXERCISE

Grading & Evaluation


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