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Anatomy & Physiology I - Course Syllabus

Blackwood, NJ

- Anatomy & Physiology I -

Instructor: Robert L. Moskowitz, Ed. D.


Camden County College
Community College of Philadelphia



	Sely, R., Stephens, T., and Tate, P.  2000. 
Anatomy & Physiology  (5th edition) McGraw-Hill .
On line resources:

Laboratory Text:	Benson, H. et al. , 1999.  Complete Version
- Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Textbook (7th edition) McGraw Hill.

Recommended:	Van Der Graff, K. & Crawley, J. A Photographic 
Atlas for the Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory (4th edition)1999.

Course Description/Goals:
Following an introduction to the organization of the human body
and histology, Anatomy & Physiology I examines the histology, gross anatomy and function of organs
of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems. Laboratories are designed
to suplement lecture material, and to include the use of a variety of materials: histology slides,
models, and preserved specimens. Some dissection is required.

Lecture Outline:
The following outline follows the recommendations of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society.
The information in this outline is designed to focus the student’s attention on the critical
content areas to be considered either through lecture, laboratory or the student’s related
textual analysis .

Part I Organzation of the Human Body • The Human Organism • The Chemical Basis of Life • Structure and Function of the Cell • Histology: The Study of Tissues Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1. A. Understanding the nature of anatomy and physiology B. Levels of structural organization 1. chemical level 2. cellular level: organelle 3. tissue level: 4 basic body tissues 4. organ level 5. organ system level: 11 systems 6. organism level C. Characteristics of life: life processes D. Concept of homeostasis 1. definition and examples 2. environments a) extracellular fluid (ECF) b) intracellular fluid (ICF) 3. regulation: neural and endocrine 4. feedback mechanisms a) negative b) positive 5. effects of stress E. General anatomical terminology 1. anatomical position 2. directional terms 3. planes and sections 4. body cavities and membranes Chemical Concepts Chapter 2. 1. Review a) chemical bonding b) chemical reactions c) acids, bases, and salts d) pH and buffers 3. organic components a) carbohydrates 1) monosaccharides 2) disaccharides 3) polysaccharides b) lipids 1) fats and phospholipids 2) steroids c) proteins 1) amino acid structure 2) enzyme functions d) nucleic acids: DNA, RNA, and ATP Cell Biology Review A. Cell Membrane Chapter 3. 1. fluid mosaic model of membrane structure 2. selective permeability: movement across a membrane a) passive processes 1) diffusion 2) osmosis 3) filtration 4) facilitated diffusion b) active processes 1) active transport: ion exchange pumps 2) bulk transport: endocytosis & exocytosis c) osmolarity and tonicity 3. electrochemical gradients: resting membrane potential B. Cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles 1) ribosomes 2) endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus 3) lysosomes and peroxisomes 4) mitochondria and cell respiration 5) cytoskeleton 1) microfilaments 2) microtubules 3) intermediate filaments 6) cilia and flagella 7) centrosome and centrioles 8) nucleus a) nuclear envelop b) nucleoplasm c) nucleolus Cellular Organization: Tissues / Histology Chapter 4. A. Cell junctions B. Tissue types: components and general functions 1. epithelial tissues: membranous and glandular 2. connective tissues: embryonic and mature 3. muscle tissues 4. nervous tissue C. Membranes 1. mucous 2. serous 3. synovial Part II Integumentary System Integument Chapter 5. A. Skin 1. general functions 2. layers: epidermis and dermis B. Epidermal derivatives (accessory structures) 1. glands: sweat and sebaceous 2. hair and nails Part III Skeletal System • Histology and Development • Gross Anatomy • Articularions and Biomechanics of Body Movement Skeletal System and Articulations Chapter 6. A. Functions of bone 1. mechanical: support, protection, movement 2. physiological: hemopoiesis and mineral storage B. Bone structure 1. parts of the typical long bone 2. bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts 3. compact bone: Haversian system (osteon) 4. spongy bone: trabeculae C. Development and growth 1. intramembranous ossification 2. endochondral ossification 3. epiphyseal plate: zones of bone formation 4. growth in diameter D. Bone homeostasis: nutritional and hormonal influences 1. remodeling of bone 2. calcium homeostasis E. Divisions Chapter 7. 1. axial skeleton 2. appendicular skeleton F. Articulations Chapter 8. 1. synarthrosis a) fibrous (suture and gomphosis) b) cartilaginous (synchondrosis) 2. amphiarthrosis a) fibrous (syndesmosis) b) cartilaginous (symphysis) 3. diarthrosis: synovial a) synovial cavity, membrane, fluid b) ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular c) movements 1) monoaxial 2) biaxial 3) triaxial Part IV Membrane Potentials Membrane physiology Chapter 9. 1. polarized membrane: resting membrane potential 2. ion channels a) leakage (non-gated) b) gated: chemical, voltage, mechanical, light 3. action potential (nerve impulse) a) depolarization and repolarization events b) All or None Law c) refractory period: absolute and relative d) conduction: continuous and saltatory 4. synaptic transmission a) electrical synapses b) chemical synapses 1) cholinergic 2) adrenergic c) types of synapses 1) axodendritic 2) neuromuscular 3) neuroglandular 5. postsynaptic potentials (PSP) a) excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) 1) temporal summation 2) spatial summation b) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP) Part V Muscular System Muscle Chapter 10&11. A. Muscle tissues: characteristics and functions B. Skeletal muscle 1. hierarchy of muscle structure a) muscle attachments 1) origin 2) insertion 3) aponeurosis 4) tendon b) connective tissue components 1) epimysium 2) perimysium 3) endomysium c) motor unit and the neuromuscular junction d) myofiber 1) sarcolemma 2) sarcoplasmic reticulum 3) transverse tubules e) myofibrils: sarcomere structure 2. muscle contraction: sliding filament mechanism a) calcium and regulatory proteins b) role of ATP c) muscle relaxation d) muscle tone 3. metabolism a) phosphagen system b) glycogen-lactic acid system c) aerobic system 4. myofiber responses: muscle tension a) single response: twitch 1) latent period 2) contraction period 3) relaxation periods b) multiple responses 1) treppe 2) incomplete tetanus 3) complete tetanus c) contraction 1) isotonic 2) isometric 5. types of muscle fibers a) slow oxidative b) fast oxidative c) fast glycolytic 6. basic skeletal muscles C. Cardiac and smooth muscle 1. microscopic anatomy 2. cardiac muscle contraction a) excitation-contraction coupling b) length-tension relationship: Frank-Starling's law c) neuroendocrine regulation 3. smooth muscle a) length-tension relationship: Stres relaxation Part VI Nervous System • Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue • Brain and Spinal Cord • Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves • Sensory, Motor and Integrative Centers • Senses • Autonomic Nervous System Nervous Tissue Chapter 12. A. Organization of the nervous system 1. central nervous system: brain and spinal cord 2. peripheral nervous system: nerves and ganglia a) afferent (sensory) 1) general somatic 2) visceral b) efferent (motor) 1) general somatic 2) visceral: sympathetic and parasympathetic B. Nervous tissue 1. neurons: parts and classifications 2. neuroglial cells (CNS & PNS) and myelin formation 3. neuronal circuits D. Nerve tissue injury: Wallerian degeneration and regeneration Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Chapter 13 & 14. A. Spinal cord 1. spinal meninges a) dura mater b) arachnoid c) pia mater 2. external anatomy of spinal cord a) posterior median sulcus b) anterior median fissure c) cervical and lumbar enlargements d) conus medullaris, cauda equina, filum terminale e) spinal nerves 1) dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion 2) ventral root 3. internal anatomy of the spinal cord a) gray matter: horns b) white matter: columns and tracts 4. physiology of the spinal cord a) sensory and motor tracts b) reflex arc 1) receptor: exteroceptors and interoceptors 2) sensory neuron 3) integration 4) motor neuron 5) effector: muscle or gland c) specific reflexes 1) monosynaptic: stretch reflex 2) polysynaptic: tendon, withdraw, and crossed extensor reflex B. Spinal nerves 1. nerve structure: composition, coverings, distribution 2. peripheral distribution: rami 3. nerve plexuses a) cervical b) brachial c) lumbar d) sacral Brain and Cranial Nerves Chapter 13. A. Organization of the brain 1. cranial meninges a) dura mater b) arachnoid c) pia mater 2. cerebrospinal fluid (formation and circulation) 3. brain ventricles a) lateral ventricles b) third ventricle c) cerebral aqueduct d) fourth ventricle B. Brain stem 1. medulla oblongata 2. pons 3. reticular formation 4. midbrain C. Diencephalon 1. thalamus 2. hypothalamus D. Cerebrum 1. external features: gyri, sulci, fissures, and lobes 2. white matter: tracts 3. cerebral nuclei (basal ganglia) 4. limbic system 5. functional areas: sensory, motor, and association E. Cerebellum F. Cranial nerves: origins, destinations, basic functions Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems Chapter 13. A. Sensation 1. levels of sensation, modality, components, receptors 2. general senses: cutaneous and proprioceptive 3. sensory pathways: ascending tracts a) posterior column pathway b) anterolateral spinothalamic pathway c) spinocerebellar pathway B. Motor pathways: descending tracts 1. direct (pyramidal) pathways 2. indirect (extrapyramidal) pathways C. Integrative functions 1. consciousness, wakefulness, and sleep 2. learning, memory, and thinking 3. speech: vocal, reading, writing Special Senses Chapter 15. A. General receptors 1. nociceptors 2. thermoreceptors 3. mechanoreceptors 4. chemoreceptors 5. photoreceptors B. Olfactory sensation C. Gustatory sensation D. Visual sensation 1. accessory structures of the eye 2. structure of the eyeball a) fibrous tunic b) vascular tunic c) nervous tunic 3. image formation and accommodation 4. photoreception: photopigments E. Auditory sensation and equilibrium 1. ear structure a) external ear b) middle ear: ossicles c) internal ear: vestibule and cochlea 2. hearing: sound waves 3. equilibrium Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 16. A. Comparison: somatic and autonomic systems B. Autonomic motor pathway 1. components a) preganglionic neurons b) autonomic ganglia c) postganglionic neurons 2. sympathetic (thoracolumbar) division 3. parasympathetic (craniosacral) division C. ANS stimulation 1. receptors a) cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic) b) adrenergic (alpha and beta) 2. effects of stimulation on the body Part VII The Endocrine System Endocrine Function Chapter 17 & 18 A. Comparison: nervous and endocrine systems B. Hormones 1. hormone chemistry 2. hormone transport 3. receptors (first and second messengers) C. Pituitary (hypophysis) gland 1. hypothalamus a) releasing hormones b) inhibiting hormones 2. anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) a) somatotrophs: somatotropin (GH) b) lactotrophs: prolactin c) corticotrophs: adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) d) thyrotrophs: thyrotropin (TSH) e) gonadotrophs 1) follicle stimulating (FSH) 2) luteinizing hormones (LH) 3) interstitial cell-stimulating hormone f) melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) 3. posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis): pituicytes a) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) b) oxytocin D. Other endocrine glands 1. thyroid gland a) follicle cells: T3 and T4 (thyroxin) b) parafollicular cells: calcitonin 2. parathyroid gland: parathyroid hormone (PTH) 3. pancreas: pancreatic islets a) alpha cells: glucagon b) beta cells: insulin 4. adrenal gland a) cortex 1) mineralocorticoids 2) glucocorticoids 3) gonadocorticoids b) medulla: epinephrine and norepinephrine 5. gonads a) ovaries: estrogens and progesterone b) testes: testosterone 6. pineal gland: pinealocytes--melatonin 7. thymus gland: thymosin E. Other endocrine tissues 1. gastrointestinal tract: gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide 2. placenta: human chorionic gonadotropin and relaxin 3. kidneys: erythropoietin 4. cardiac muscle fibers: atrial natriuretic peptide F. General adaptation syndrome 1. stressors 2. alarm reaction 3. resistance reaction 4. exhaustion Laboratory Schedule Week Topic LAB EXERCISE 1 Orientation, Introduction to Laboratory Introduction (p. ix-x); Ex. 1 & 2 2 Microscopy, Cell Structure Ex. 4 & 5 3 Histology (Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue) Ex. 10 & 11 4 Histology-continued, Integument HISTOLOGY SELF QUIZ #1 Ex. 10 - 12, 19, Atlas HA-1 to HA 12 5 Skeletal System: Vertebae, Thorax, Appendicular Ex. 13, 15, 16 6 Skeletal System: Skull, Articulations Ex. 14, 17 7 Skeletal Muscle: Structure, Movement, Head/Neck Ex. 33, 34, 36 8 Skeletal Muscle: Trunk, Shoulder & Upper Extremities Ex. 37, 38 9 Skeletal Muscle: Abdominopelvic, Intercostal & Lower extremities Ex. 39, 40; Surface Review 10 Nervous System: Nerve cell, Brain (dissection) Ex.18, 45, 46 HA- 13 to HA-15 11 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, Reflex Arcs & Cranial Nerves Ex. 41, 45 12 Special Senses: Eye (dissection) & Ear Ex. 48, 50, 51 HA- 16 to HA-18, HA-20-21 13 Laboratory Examination

Grading & Evaluation