HUMAN BIOLOGY

Instructor: Robert L. Moskowitz, Ed. D.
http://rmoskowitz.tripod.com
Email: rmoskowitz@ccp.cc.pa.us

CREDITS: (Three) 3

CONTACT HOURS: Lecture Only : 3 Hours

Prerequisites: none

Corequisites: None

Course Description/Goals:

This non-laboratory course is designed as an overview of the human organism. Cells, tissues and specifically organ systems will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on anatomical structures and important physiological phenomena. Some aspects of genetics and human disease may be introduced. This course does not satisfy any natural science elective.

Course Materials:

Required Textbook: Human Biology, Sylvia Mader, 6th ed. Supplementary: Human Biology: Student Study Guide, Sylvia Mader, 6th ed.

Student Evaluation:

There will be three examinations, each worth one-third of the total grade.


Course Outline *

1. Introduction to Human Biology

2. Cell structure and function

3. Body Organization

4. Integumentary System

5. Skeletal System

6. Muscular System

7. Nervous System

8. Senses

9. Circulatory & Lymphatic System

10. Blood

11. Respiratory System

12. Digestive System & Nutrition

13. Excretory System

14. Endocrine System

15. Immune System

16. Reproductive System

For some study notes click here!:

* The actual order of presentation for the above content areas may vary from the above sequence.


Course Objectives/Student Learning Outcomes:

Upon completion of this course the student will be able to:

1. Describe the structure of a cell membrane and discuss how molecules enter and exit cells.

2. Predict the results of placing a cell in solutions of various tonicity.

3. Describe the structure of the nucleus and its importance to the cell.

4. Describe the relationship between the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes.

5. Describe the structure of the cytoskeleton within the cytoplasm

6. Describe the relationship between centrioles, cilia and flagella, and spindle fibers.

7. Describe the lock-and-key theory of enzyme action.

8. Stat the levels of organization of the human body.

9. Name and describe the types of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues presented.

10. Identify structures within the skin and associate these with the three layers of the integument.

11. Define homeostasis; describe its controll and importance.

12. List at least four functions of the skeleton.

13. Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton.

14. List the bones of the skull, face and appendicular skeleton.

15. Describe the structure of a long bone.

16. Classify joints as to moveability.

17. List the different types of joint movements.

18. Describe the anatomy of a whole muscle.

19. Describe the anatomy of a muscle fiber and discuss the sliding filament theory.

20. Describe the neuromuscular junction, including the initiation and conduction of the muscle action potential.

21. Cite the various divisions of the nervous system and their respective functions.

22. Describe the structure and function of the three major types of neurons.

23. Describe the structure and function of a synapse, including transmission across a synapse.

24. Describe the the Autonomic nervous system and cite similarities and differences in the structure and function of the two divisions.

25. Describe in general the anatomy of the brain; name five parts and list their functions.

26. Name the five senses of the skin and state the location of these receptors.

27. Name the chemorecptors and state their location, anatomy and mechanism of action.

28. Describe the anatomy of the eye and function of each part.

29. Describe the receptors for sight, mechanism of action and mechanism of stereoscopic vision.

30. Describe the anatomy of the ear and function of each part.

31. Describe the the receptors for balance and hearing and their mechanism of action.

32. Name and describe the function of blood vessels.

33. Name the parts of the heart and trace the path of blood flow through the heart.

34. Describe the heartbeat and the intrinsic= mechanism for controlling the heartbeat.

35. Describe the location, operation and function of valves in the vessels and in the heart.

36. Describe the factors that control the flow of blood in the arteries, capillaries and veins.

37. Describe the structure and function of the lymphatic system including the lymph vessels.

38. State the components of blood, their function and source.

39. Describe the transport in general of gases and other molecules.

40. Describe the structure of red blood cells and their life cycle.

41. Classify while blood cells and describe the structure and function on neutrophils and lymphocytes.

42. Define immunity and describe how it is acquired and how it functions.

43. List the four major types of blood and describe how blood is typed.

44. State and define the four processes involved in respiration.

45. State the path of air and describe in general the structure and function of all organs mentioned.

46. Describe the mechanism by which breathing occurs.

47. Describe the events that occur during external and internal respiration.

48. Trace the path of food during digestion and describe the general structure and function of each organ mentioned.

49. Name the major digestive organs.

50. Name the accessory organs of digestion and describe their contribution to the digestive process.

51. List six functions of the liver.

52. Describe a balanced diet.

53. Discuss the requirements for proteins, carbohydrates, fats vitamins and minerals in the diet.

54. Name the excretory wastes and relate them to the correct end product of metabolism and to the correct organ of excretion.

55. Trace the path of urine and describe the structure and function of each organ mentioned.

56. Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the kidney.

57. State the parts of the kidney nephron and relate these to the macroscopic anatomy.

58. Describe the steps in urine formation and relate these to parts of the nephron.

59. Describe how the loope of Henle contributes to water reabsorption.

60. Describe how blood volume is maintained and how the pH of the blood is adjusted by the kidneys.

61. Explain the relationship between the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus.

62. Name two hormones produced by the hypothalamus that are secreted by the posterior pituitary.

63. Name six hormones produced by the anterior pituitary.

64. Explain the relationship between the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus.

65. Discuss the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the thyroid gland.

66. Describe the relationship between adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex.

67. Discuss the function of the adrenal medulla.

68. Name two categories of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, give an example of each category and discuss its physiological action.

69. State the location of the parathyroid gland and discuss the function of PTH and calcitonin.

70. State the location of the pancreas and name two hormones produced by the pancreas and their actions.

71. Discuss two types of diabetes mellitus.

72. Contrast insulin shock to diabetic coma.

73. List the functions of prostaglandins and tell how they function in cells.

74. Give examples of the three general defense mechanisms.

75. Contrast the origin and function of B-cells and T-cells.

76. Describe the structure of an antibody.

77. Tell how T-cell recognizes an antigen.

78. List the different types of T-cells and their functions.

79. Name and state the functions of the reproductive structures in the male.

80. Name at least six actions of testosterone.

81. Name and state the functions of the reproductive structures in the female.

82. Name at least six actions of estrogen and progesterone.

83. Discuss hormonal regulation of reproductive function in the male and female.






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