Biology 109 - Anatomy & Physiology I

Biology 109-110 (each course 3-2-4) Anatomy and Physiology I & II: Human physiology and biochemistry are studied systematically in lectures while anatomy is stressed in laboratory experiences requiring extensive dissection. This two semester sequence follows the recommendations of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society. Biology 109 is designed for students who have had high school biology and chemistry within 10 years or who have passed Biology 106. Biology 109 is a prerequisite for Biology 110.

Suggested Lecture Topic Schedule

Below is an approximate schedule of topics. While faculty are required to cover these topics, the sequencing is only a suggestion.

Chapter 1An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 2The Chemical Level of Organization
Chapter 3The Cellular Level of Organization
Chapter 3The Cellular Level of Organization
Chapter 4The Tissue Level of Organization
Chapter 5The Integumentary system
Chapter 12Neural Tissue
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Neural Tissue
The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
Chapter 14The Brain and Cranial Nerves
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
Integrative Functions
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
The Autonomic Nervous System
Sensory Function
Chapter 18The Endocrine System
Chapter 6Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Muscle Tissue
Chapter 10Muscle Tissue

Laboratory Schedule

Lab Orientation
Introduction to the human body
Manual: Preface and appendices
Chemical Composition of cells
Exercise #1
Properties of proteins
Exercise #2
Membrane Transport Exercise #3
Examination of mitosis
Exercise #4
Basic histology: epithelial and connective tissue Exercise #5
Laboratory Midterm Exam
as assigned by instructor
Nervous tissue
Physiology of the neuron
Exercise #5
Exercises #6, 7, & 8
Brain and Spinal Cord
Nervous Histology
Exercises #9 & 10
Exercises #11.1 & 11.2
Eye and Ear
Exercises #11.1, 11.2, 12.1, & 12.2
Bone tissue
Bone structure
Skeleton: axial and appendicular
Exercise #5
Exercise #13.1
Exercises #13.2, 13.3, & 13.4
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Muscles: Frog and Human
Exercise #5
Exercise #14
Laboratory Final
as assigned by instructor

1 Students are expected to prepare for the laboratory (reading all Exercises and text references) before the lab session. Assignments and detailed lab work are listed in the Laboratory Outline in the lab manual (see pp. vii to x).

2 Be sure to check for laboratory instructions in the laboratory manual (see p. xii).

* During these lab classes, a student who does not wear safety glasses and gloves will not be permitted in the lab room.

Please note that students are required to sign a departmental agreement to follow the procedures and policies as outlined in Appendix 1 (pp. 133-134) and 2 (pp. 135-158).

Course Objectives:

   Upon completion of this course, the students should...

   	1.	understand the scope and subdivision of anatomy and physiology.

   	2.	describe the anatomical position.

   	3.	use the appropriate anatomical and directional terminology and descriptions.

   	4.	describe the body cavities in terms of location, content, and borders.

   	5.	describe the components and general functions of the basic organ systems.

   	6.	explain the concept of homeostasis and apply homeostatic mechanisms to the body.

   	7.	relate the basic concepts of chemistry to the cell and body.

   	8.	define terms related to basic chemistry, including ion, acid, base, salt, buffer, pH.

   	9.	describe the chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

   	10.	identify cell structures, describe their composition, and explain their functions.

   	11.	describe cell functions, including particle movement, protein synthesis, and cell cycle.

   	12.	describe and locate the basic tissues of the body, and explain their functions.

   	13.	describe the three types of membranes.

   	14.	describe the components of the integumentary system.

   	15.	state the functions of the skin, and the sweat and sebaceous glands.

   	16.	describe the organization of the nervous system.

   	17.	describe the functions of neuroglial cells.

   	18.	describe the resting (polarized) membrane in a neuron.

   	19.	explain the formation, propagation, and transmission of a nerve impulse.

   	20.	describe the structure of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.

   	21.	describe the reflex arc.

   	22.	describe the brain in terms of development, components, and functions.

   	23.	list the 12 cranial nerves and state their locations and functions.

   	24.	describe the ascending and descending tracts.

   	25.	define sensory input, the types of receptors, and special sense structures.

   	26.	differentiate somatic motor from visceral motor.

   	27.	differentiate sympathetic from parasympathetic.

   	28.	describe the hypothalamic control of the endocrine system.

   	29.	explain the functioning of peptide and steroid hormones.

   	30.	state the cell, hormone, and hormone function for the major endocrine organs.

   	31.	explain the roles of hormones in the control and integration of metabolism.

   	32.	describe the structure, growth, and development of bone.

   	33.	describe the hormonal and dietary influences over bone growth.

   	34.	describe the major types of articulations.

   	35.	describe the movements attributed to synovial joints.

   	36.	describe the hierarchy of the structure of a muscle.

   	37.	explain the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.

   	38.	compare and contrast skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle.

Biology 109 - Anatomy & Physiology I

Lecture Outline:

This outline follows the recommendations of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society) The information in this outline is not designed to limit class discussion; rather, it is designed to detail the minimum requirements for this course. This outline will serve as the blueprint for the departmental comprehensive final examination.

I. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

	A. Scope and subdivisions of anatomy and physiology

	B. Levels of structural organization

		1. chemical level

		2. cellular level: organelle

		3. tissue level: 4 basic body tissues

		4. organ level

		5. organ system level: 11 systems

		6. organism level

	C. Characteristics of life: life processes

	D. Concept of homeostasis

		1. definition and examples

		2. environments

			a) extracellular fluid (ECF)

			b) intracellular fluid (ICF)

		3. regulation: neural and endocrine

		4. feedback mechanisms

			a) negative

			b) positive

		5. effects of stress

	E. General anatomical terminology

		1. anatomical position

		2. directional terms

		3. planes and sections

		4. body cavities and membranes

II. Cell Biology

	A. Basic cellular components

		1. cell membrane

		2. cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles

			a) ribosomes

			b) endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus

			c) lysosomes and peroxisomes

			d) mitochondria and cell respiration

			e) cytoskeleton

				1) microfilaments

				2) microtubules

				3) intermediate filaments

			f) cilia and flagella

			g) centrosome and centrioles

		3. nucleus

			a) nuclear envelop

			b) nucleoplasm

			c) nucleolus

	B. Cell chemistry

		1. review of basic chemistry

			a) atomic structure

			b) chemical bonding

			c) chemical reactions

		2. inorganic components

			a) water

			b) acids, bases, and salts

			c) pH and buffers

		3. organic components

			a) carbohydrates

				1) monosaccharides

				2) disaccharides

				3) polysaccharides

			b) lipids

				1) fats and phospholipids

				2) steroids

			c) proteins

				1) amino acid structure

				2) enzyme functions

			d) nucleic acids: DNA, RNA, and ATP

	C. Cell membrane

		1. fluid mosaic model of membrane structure

		2. selective permeability: movement across a membrane

			a) passive processes

				1) diffusion

				2) osmosis

				3) filtration

				4) facilitated diffusion

			b) active processes

				1) active transport: ion exchange pumps

				2) bulk transport: endocytosis & exocytosis

			c) osmolarity and tonicity

		4. electrochemical gradients: resting membrane potential

	D. Nucleus

		1. protein synthesis

			a) DNA transcription

			b) translation

		2. cell division	

			a) cell cycle: interphase

			b) somatic cell division: mitosis and cytokinesis

			c) gamete formation: meiosis

III. Cellular Organization: Tissue

	A. Cell junctions

	B. Tissue types: components and general functions

		1. epithelial tissues: membranous and glandular

		2. connective tissues: embryonic and mature

		3. muscle tissues

		4. nervous tissue

	C. Membranes

		1. mucous

		2. serous

		3. synovial

IV. Integumentary System

	A. Skin	

		1. general functions

		2. layers: epidermis and dermis

	B. Epidermal derivatives (accessory structures)

		1. glands: sweat and sebaceous

		2. hair and nails

V. Nervous Tissue

	A. Organization of the nervous system

		1. central nervous system: brain and spinal cord

		2. peripheral nervous system: nerves and ganglia

			a) afferent (sensory)

				1) general somatic

				2) visceral

			b) efferent (motor)

				1) general somatic

				2) visceral: sympathetic and parasympathetic

	B. Nervous tissue

		1. neurons: parts and classifications

		2. neuroglial cells (CNS & PNS) and myelin formation

	C. Neurophysiology: membrane physiology

		1. polarized membrane: resting membrane potential

		2. ion channels

			a) leakage (non-gated)

			b) gated: chemical, voltage, mechanical, light

		3. action potential (nerve impulse)

			a) depolarization and repolarization events

			b) All or None Law

			c) refractory period: absolute and relative

			d) conduction: continuous and saltatory

		4. synaptic transmission

			a) electrical synapses

			b) chemical synapses

				1) cholinergic

				2) adrenergic

			c) types of synapses

				1) axodendritic

				2) neuromuscular

				3) neuroglandular

		5. postsynaptic potentials (PSP)

			a) excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP)

				1) temporal

				2) spatial

			b) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP)

		6. neuronal circuits

	D. Nerve tissue injury: Wallerian degeneration and regeneration

VI. Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

	A. Spinal cord

		1. spinal meninges

			a) dura mater

			b) arachnoid

			c) pia mater

		2. external anatomy of spinal cord

			a) posterior median sulcus

			b) anterior median fissure

			c) cervical and lumbar enlargements

			d) conus medullaris, cauda equina, filum terminale

			e) spinal nerves

				1) dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion

				2) ventral root

		3. internal anatomy of the spinal cord

			a) gray matter: horns

			b) white matter: columns and tracts

		4. physiology of the spinal cord

			a) sensory and motor tracts

			b) reflex arc

				1) receptor: exteroceptors and interoceptors

				2) sensory neuron

				3) integration

				4) motor neuron

				5) effector: muscle or gland

			c) specific reflexes

				1) monosynaptic: stretch reflex

				2) polysynaptic: tendon, withdraw, and crossed extensor reflex

	B. Spinal nerves

		1. nerve structure: composition, coverings, distribution

		2. peripheral distribution: rami

		3. nerve plexuses

			a) cervical

			b) brachial

			c) lumbar

			d) sacral

VII. Brain and Cranial Nerves	

	A. Organization of the brain

		1. brain development	

			a) primary brain vesicles

				1) prosencephalon

				2) mesencephalon

				3) rhombencephalon

			b) secondary brain vesicles

				1) telencephalon

				2) diencephalon

				3) mesencephalon

				4) metencephalon

				5) mylencephalon

		2. cranial meninges

			a) dura mater

			b) arachnoid

			c) pia mater

		3. cerebrospinal fluid (formation and circulation)

		4. brain ventricles

			a) lateral ventricles

			b) third ventricle

			c) cerebral aqueduct

			d) fourth ventricle

	B. Brain stem

		1. medulla oblongata

		2. pons

		3. reticular formation

		4. midbrain

	C. Diencephalon

		1. thalamus

		2. hypothalamus

	D. Cerebrum

		1. external features: gyri, sulci, fissures, and lobes

		2. white matter: tracts

		3. cerebral nuclei (basal ganglia)

		4. limbic system

		5. functional areas: sensory, motor, and association

	E. Cerebellum

	F. Cranial nerves: origins, destinations, basic functions

VIII. Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems

	A. Sensation

		1. levels of sensation, modality, components, receptors

		2. general senses: cutaneous and proprioceptive

		3. sensory pathways: ascending tracts

			a) posterior column pathway

			b) anterolateral spinothalamic pathway

			c) spinocerebellar pathway

	B. Motor pathways: descending tracts

		1. direct (pyramidal) pathways

		2. indirect (extrapyramidal) pathways

	C. Integrative functions

		1. consciousness, wakefulness, and sleep

		2. learning, memory, and thinking

		3. speech: vocal, reading, writing

IX. Special Senses

	A. General receptors

		1. nociceptors

		2. thermoreceptors

		3. mechanoreceptors

		4. chemoreceptors

		5. photoreceptors

	B. Olfactory sensation	

	C. Gustatory sensation

	D. Visual sensation

		1. accessory structures of the eye

		2. structure of the eyeball

			a) fibrous tunic

			b) vascular tunic

			c) nervous tunic

		3. image formation and accommodation

		4. photoreception: photopigments

	E. Auditory sensation and equilibrium

		1. ear structure

			a) external ear

			b) middle ear: ossicles

			c) internal ear: vestibule and cochlea

		2. hearing: sound waves

		3. equilibrium

X. Autonomic Nervous System

	A. Comparison: somatic and autonomic systems

	B. Autonomic motor pathway

		1. components

			a) preganglionic neurons

			b) autonomic ganglia

			c) postganglionic neurons

		2. sympathetic (thoracolumbar) division

		3. parasympathetic (craniosacral) division

	C. ANS stimulation

		1. receptors

			a) cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic)

			b) adrenergic (alpha and beta)

		2. effects of stimulation on the body

XI. Endocrine System

	A. Comparison: nervous and endocrine systems

	B. Hormones

		1. hormone chemistry

		2. hormone transport

		3. receptors (first and second messengers)

 	C. Pituitary (hypophysis) gland

		1. hypothalamus

			a) releasing hormones

			b) inhibiting hormones	

		2. anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

			a) somatotrophs: somatotropin (GH)

			b) lactotrophs: prolactin

			c) corticotrophs: adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)

			d) thyrotrophs: thyrotropin (TSH)

			e) gonadotrophs

				1) follicle stimulating (FSH)

				2) luteinizing hormones (LH)

				3) interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

			f) melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

		3. posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis): pituicytes

			a) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

			b) oxytocin

	D. Other endocrine glands

		1. thyroid gland

			a) follicle cells: T3 and T4 (thyroxin)

			b) parafollicular cells: calcitonin

		2. parathyroid gland: parathyroid hormone (PTH)

		3. pancreas: pancreatic islets

			a) alpha cells: glucagon

			b) beta cells: insulin

		4. adrenal gland

			a) cortex

				1) mineralocorticoids

				2) glucocorticoids

				3) gonadocorticoids

			b) medulla: epinephrine and norepinephrine

		5. gonads

			a) ovaries: estrogens and progesterone

			b) testes: testosterone

		6. pineal gland: pinealocytes--melatonin

		7. thymus gland: thymosin

	E. Other endocrine tissues

		1. gastrointestinal tract: gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin,

			and gastric inhibitory peptide

		2. placenta: human chorionic gonadotropin and relaxin

		3. kidneys: erythropoietin

		4. cardiac muscle fibers: atrial natriuretic peptide

	F. General adaptation syndrome

		1. stressors

		2. alarm reaction

		3. resistance reaction

		4. exhaustion

XII. Skeletal System and Articulations

	A. Functions of bone

		1. mechanical: support, protection, movement

		2. physiological: hemopoiesis and mineral storage

	B. Bone structure

		1. parts of the typical long bone

		2. bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts

		3. compact bone: Haversian system (osteon)

		4. spongy bone: trabeculae

	C. Development and growth

		1. intramembranous ossification

		2. endochondral ossification

		3. epiphyseal plate: zones of bone formation

		4. growth in diameter

	D. Bone homeostasis: nutritional and hormonal influences

		1. remodeling of bone	

		2. calcium homeostasis

	E. Divisions

		1. axial skeleton

		2. appendicular skeleton

	F. Articulations

		1. synarthrosis

			a) fibrous (suture and gomphosis)

			b) cartilaginous (synchondrosis)

		2. amphiarthrosis

			a) fibrous (syndesmosis)

			b) cartilaginous (symphysis)

		3. diarthrosis: synovial	

			a) synovial cavity, membrane, fluid

			b) ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular

			c) movements

				1) monoaxial

				2) biaxial

				3) triaxial

XIII. Muscular System

	A. Muscle tissues: characteristics and functions

	B. Skeletal muscle

		1. hierarchy of muscle structure

			a) muscle attachments

				1) origin

				2) insertion

				3) aponeurosis

				4) tendon

			b) connective tissue components

				1) epimysium

				2) perimysium

				3) endomysium

			c) motor unit and the neuromuscular junction

			d) myofiber

				1) sarcolemma

				2) sarcoplasmic reticulum

				3) transverse tubules

			e) myofibrils: sarcomere structure

		2. muscle contraction: sliding filament mechanism

			a) calcium and regulatory proteins

			b) role of ATP

			c) muscle relaxation

			d) muscle tone

		3. metabolism

			a) phosphagen system

			b) glycogen-lactic acid system	

			c) aerobic system

		4. myofiber responses: muscle tension

			a) single response: twitch

				1) latent period

				2) contraction period

				3) relaxation periods

			b) multiple responses

				1) treppe

				2) incomplete tetanus

				3) complete tetanus

			c) contraction

				1) isotonic

				2) isometric

		5. types of muscle fibers

			a) slow oxidative

			b) fast oxidative

			c) fast glycolytic

		6. basic skeletal muscles

	C. Cardiac and smooth muscle

		1. microscopic anatomy

		2. cardiac muscle contraction

			a) excitation-contraction coupling

			b) length-tension relationship: Frank-Starling's law

			c) neuroendocrine regulation

		3. smooth muscle


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